Abdominoplasty A surgical procedure done to flatten the abdomen by removing extra fat and skin and tightening muscles in your abdominal wall. This procedure is commonly called a tummy tuck.
Acne: A skin condition characterized by the excess production of oil from sebaceous glands in which the hair follicles become plugged.
Acne scar: Scar due to severe acne. The scars can range from deep pits to scars that are angular or wavelike in appearance.
Age spots: Small flat pigmented spots that are most often seen on areas of the body that have been exposed to the sun over a period of years. Age spots usually occur after the age of 40.
Alpha Hydroxy Acids: Alpha hydroxy acids are derived from foods, such as fruits and milk; they can improve the texture of skin by removing layers of dead cells and by promoting cell regeneration.
Anesthesia: A procedure used to inhibit pain or numb a body region during a medical or surgical procedure. Anesthesia may be used in various forms, including topical application or local, regional or general anesthesia.
Areola: Pigmented skin surrounding the nipple.
Augmentation mammaplasty: also known as breast augmentation is the enlargement of the breast with surgery.
Axillary: The underarm or armpit area.
Bariatric Surgery: Dramatic weight-loss surgery performed to help obese patients lose weight by reducing the size of the stomach. Common procedures include gastric bypass and lap band (adjustable gastric band) surgery.
Basal cell carcinoma: The most common form of skin cancer. Occurs in the epidermis. These growths are often round and pearly or darkly pigmented.
Bilateral gynecomastia: A condition of over-developed or enlarged breasts affecting both breasts in men.
Blepharoplasty: A primarily cosmetic surgical procedure that reduces bagginess from lower eyelids and raises drooping upper eyelids. The procedure involves the removal of excess skin, muscle, and underlying fatty tissue.
Botox: Brand name of Botulinum Toxin Type A. This neurotoxin is FDA approved to treat select neurological conditions and to reduce severe underarm sweating. Botox Cosmetic is the brand name for cosmetic indications.
Botulinum Toxin: A neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum. Two specific strains, Type A and Type B, are used in minute doses to reduce painful muscle spasms or as cosmetic treatments.
Botulinum Toxin Type A: The form of botulinum toxin in Botox, Botox Cosmetic and Dysport (all FDA approved), as well as PureTox (not FDA approved). These products are used cosmetically to reduce the visible signs of frown lines and facial creases.
Brachioplasty: A surgical procedure, also known as arm lift, to correct sagging of the upper arms.
Breast augmentation: Also known as augmentation mammaplasty; a surgical procedure to increase breast size.
Breast lift: Also known as mastopexy; surgery to lift the breasts into the correct nipple position.
Breast reconstruction: Breast reconstruction is achieved through several plastic surgery techniques that attempt to restore a breast to near normal shape, appearance and size following mastectomy.
Breast reduction: also known as reduction mammoplasty is the reduction of breast size and breast lift by surgery.
Brow lift: A surgical procedure to correct a low-positioned or sagging brow. Smoothes furrows across the forehead and between the brows.
Buccal Fat Pad: Buccal fat pads are localized pockets of fat situated above the jawline near the corner of the mouth. They can be contoured or removed in patients with excessively round faces to provide a more sculpted facial appearance (sometimes referred to as the “waif look”). In some individuals, removal of the buccal fat pads can lead to a drawn, hollow-cheeked look as aging progresses.
Capsular contracture: A complication of breast implant surgery which occurs when scar tissue that normally forms around the implant tightens and squeezes the implant and becomes firm.
Cellulite: The dimpled-looking fat that often appears on the buttocks, thighs, hips and sometimes on the abdomen or upper arm.
Chemical peel: A process in which a chemical solution is applied to the skin to remove dead skin cells and stimulate the production of new skin cells. This process is also called a chemexfoliation.
Circumferential thigh lift: A surgical procedure to correct sagging of the outer and mid-thigh.
Columella: Tissue that separates the nostrils.
Collagen: The major structural proteins in the skin that give it strength and resilience.
Conchal cartilage: The largest and deepest concavity of the external ear.
Contracture: A puckering or pulling together of tissues; a potential side effect of cleft surgery.
Contractures: Scars that restrict movement due to skin and underlying tissue that pull together during healing and usually occur when there is a large amount of tissue loss, such as after a burn.
CoolSculpting: The brand name of a noninvasive fat reduction treatment, manufactured by ZELTIQ® Aesthetics, Inc., which uses cryolipolysis technology. FDA approved.
Crows Feet: The fine lines found around the eyes. They are often caused by sun exposure. Smoking can also contribute to their formation.
Debriding: The process of removing dead or devitalized tissue before reconstructive or cosmetic surgery.
Depilation: The removal of hair.
Dermablading: Dermaplaning or dermablading is a procedure, similar to dermabrasion, that is used to improve skin wrinkling and other skin imperfections. The surgeon uses a dermatome (a tool resembling an electric razor that is equipped with small blades) to remove the top layers of the skin.
Dermabrasion: Mechanical polishing of the skin. A surgical procedure in which a patient’s upper layers of skin, scarred from acne, pox, or other causes, is frozen and then removed using a high-powered rotating brush.
Dermal Filler: An injectable substance, often containing hyaluronic acid, that is used to plump or shape the skin and to improve the appearance of wrinkles. See Fillers
Dermatitis: An inflammation of the skin caused by an allergic reaction or contact with an irritant. Typical symptoms of dermatitis include redness and itching.
Dermis: The middle layer of the skin, the dermis is a complex combination of blood vessels, hair follicles, and sebaceous (oil) glands. Here, you’ll find collagen and elastin. The dermis is also where wrinkles occur.
Donor site: An area of your body where the surgeon harvests skin, muscle and fat to reconstruct your breast – commonly located in less exposed areas of the body such as the back, abdomen or buttocks.
Dysport: Brand name of Botulinum Toxin Type A used for cosmetic injectable treatments. FDA approved.
Elastin: A protein found with collagen in the dermis that is responsible for giving structure to the skin and organs.
Epidermis: The outer layer of the skin. The epidermis is also the thinnest layer, responsible for protecting you from the harsh environment. The epidermis is made up of five layers of its own: stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum.
Excision: To remove the skin.
Eye lift: See “blepharoplasty.”
Facelift: See “rhytidectomy.” A surgical procedure, also known as facelift, to reduce sagging of the mid-face, jowls and neck
Frontalis Muscle: is the muscle which covers parts of the skull. Some sources consider the frontalis muscle to be a distinct muscle. However, Terminologia Anatomica currently classifies it as part of the occipitofrontalis muscle along with the occipitalis muscle.
Frozen section: A surgical procedure in which the cancerous lesion is removed and microscopically examined by a pathologist prior to wound closure to ensure all cancerous cells have been removed.
General anesthesia: Drugs and/or gases used during an operation to relieve pain and alter consciousness.
Glabella: The space between the eyebrows and above the nose, where muscle movement commonly results in vertical frown lines.
Grafting: Tissue taken from other parts of the body.
Hematoma: Blood pooling beneath the skin.
Hemoglobin: Blood count. .
Hyperpigmentation: A skin condition in which there is excessive pigmentation that’s often seen as dark spots on the skin.
Hypertrophic scar: A raised and red scar, similar to a keloid scar but different in that it stays within the boundaries of the injury site.
Hypopigmentation: A skin condition in which there is a lack of pigmentation.
Hyaluronic Acid: Also called Hyaluronan or Hyalronate, a chief component of cellular matter, particularly connective tissue, in the human body. Synthetic hyaluronic acid is the chief component of the FDA-approved dermal fillers Restylane, Hylaform, Juvederm Ultra, Juvederm Ultra Plus, Elevess and Perlane.
Hyaluronic Acid-Based Fillers: These fillers, commonly referred to as HA, are derived from a sugar found naturally in human skin. A major benefit of this filler class is that allergic reactions are extremely rare and no pretreatment skin testing is necessary. These compounds bind water similar to the way a sponge absorbs water. Because of this, they hydrate the skin in the treated region and act as a cushion. They are eventually absorbed by the body and so injections are needed every three months for up to a year.
Injectable fillers: Substances used to restore volume and your youthful appearance.
Intraoral: Inside the mouth.
Intense Pulse Light (IPL): IPL is technology that uses wavelengths of light for hair removal and to improve skin conditions such as sun damage, rosacea, broken capillaries and blood vessels and hyperpigmentation.
Intravenous sedation: Sedatives are administered by injection into a vein to help you relax.
Juvederm: The brand name for an injectable hyaluronic-acid-based dermal filler. FDA approved
Keloid scar: A type of scar that continues to grow beyond what is needed at the site of an injury. This type of scar is caused by too much collagen forming while the skin is being repaired. The tendency to develop keloid scars is genetic.
Keratin: This dominant protein is the skin’s main material, occurring also in hair and nails. Keratin is what makes skin rigid.
Latissimus dorsi flap technique: A surgical technique that uses muscle, fat and skin tunneled under the skin and tissue of a woman’s back to the reconstructed breast and remains attached to its donor site, leaving blood supply intact.
Light therapy: (Intense Pulsed Light) Pulses of light that can be used to treat discoloration and texture changes of the skin.
Lipoplasty: Another term for liposuction.
Liposuction: Also called lipoplasty or suction lipectomy, this procedure vacuums out fat from beneath the skin’s surface to reduce fullness.
Local anesthesia: A drug is injected directly to the site of an incision during an operation to relieve pain.
Local flap: A surgical procedure used for skin cancer in which healthy, adjacent tissue is repositioned over the wound.
Lower body lift: Surgical procedure to correct sagging of the abdomen, buttocks, groin, and outer thighs.
Malar: Of or relating to the cheekbone area.
Mammoplasty: Any reconstructive or cosmetic surgical procedure that alters the size or shape of the breast.
Mammogram: An x-ray image of the breast.
Mastectomy: The removal of a breast, typically to rid the body cancer.
Mastopexy: Also called a breast lift, this procedure removes excess skin in order to lift up sagging or drooping breasts.
Medial thigh lift: A surgical procedure to correct sagging of the inner thigh.
Melanoma: A skin cancer that is most often distinguished by its pigmented blackish or brownish coloration and irregular and ill-defined borders is the most serious form of skin cancer. It occurs in the deepest portion of the epidermis, and for this reason, melanoma is the most likely form of skin cancer to spread quickly in the skin and to other parts of the body.
Melasma: A skin condition that consists of brown or gray patches on the face, usually on the forehead, chin, nose and upper lip.
Mohs surgery: A surgical procedure that’s used when skin cancer is like an iceberg. Beneath the skin, the cancerous cells cover a much larger region and there are no defined borders.
Nasolabial fold: Deep creases between the nose and mouth.
Nevi: A mole.
Necrosis: The accidental death of cells and living tissue. There are many causes of necrosis, including prolonged injury, infection, or inflammation.
Otoplasty: A surgical procedure also known as ear surgery to improve the shape, position or proportion of the ear.
Pectoralis Muscles: The muscles underlying the breasts and attached to the chest region
Photo-aging: The changes that occur to the skin due to sun exposure. This includes wrinkles, sallowness (yellowing), and age spots.
Plastic Surgeon: A doctor who specializes in cosmetic and/or reconstructive surgery with the goal of improving the function and/or appearance of a body part. Board certification in plastic surgery is granted by the American Board of Plastic Surgery.
Poly-L-lactic Acid: A biodegradable, biocompatible synthetic polymer from the alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) family that has been widely used for many years in dissolvable stitches, bone screws, and facial implants. It is the primary component of Sculptra.
Ptosis: The drooping of a body part, especially the eyelids or the breasts.
Rectus abdominis muscle: also known as the “abdominals or abs,” is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen
Reduction mammaplasty: also known as breast reduction is the surgical removal of breast tissue to reduce the size of breasts.
Restylane: The brand name for an injectable hyaluronic-acid-based dermal filler. FDA approved.
Retinol: A derivative of Vitamin A commonly found in many skin care creams.
Rhinoplasty: surgery to change the appearance of the nose commonly called a nose job
Rhytidectomy: A surgical procedure, also known as facelift, to reduce sagging of the mid-face, jowls and neck.
Rosacea: A skin disease of unknown causes with an array of symptoms, including redness and puffiness on several areas of the face that include the cheeks and nose. Rosacea cannot be cured, but prompt correct treatment can keep it from getting worse over time.
Salicylic acid: See “beta hydroxy acid.”
Saline implants: Breast implants filled with a salt water solution.
Sculptra: The brand name for an injectable poly-L-lactic-acid-based dermal filler (FDA approved in 2004 for treatment of lipoatrophy). In 2009, it was shown to correct shallow-to-deep nasolabial folds (smile lines), contour deficiencies and other facial wrinkles.
Silicone implants: Breast implants filled with an elastic gel solution.
Skin graft: A surgical procedure used for skin cancer. Healthy skin is removed from one area of the body and relocated to the wound site. A suture line is positioned to follow the natural creases and curves of the face if possible, to minimize the appearance of the resulting scar.
Skin resurfacing: Treatment to improve the texture, clarity and overall appearance of your skin.
Subcutaneous: A term referring to below the skin.
Suction lipectomy: Another term for liposuction.
Sun protection factor: Commonly seen on sunscreen packages as “SPF,” the sun protection factor is the amount of protection a sunscreen product provides. In general, the higher the SPF, the greater the protection.
Suture: Stitches used to hold tissue together or to close a wound.
Tissue expansion: A procedure that can substitute for skin grafts. An inflatable balloon called a tissue expander is placed under the skin near the scar site to stretch additional skin to be used to revise a scar. Oftentimes, multiple procedures are needed.
TRAM flap: Also known as transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous flap, a surgical technique that uses muscle, fat and skin from your own abdomen to reconstruct the breast.
Tretinoin: A prescription drug derived from vitamin A used to treat acne and other skin disorders.
Tumescent or super-wet liposuction: Requires an infusion of saline solution with adrenaline and possibly anesthetic prior to removal of excess fat.
Tummy tuck: all so known as an abdominoplasty–A surgical procedure to correct the apron of excess skin hanging over your abdomen.
Ultrasound: A diagnostic procedure that projects high-frequency sound waves into the body and changes the echoes into pictures.
Unilateral gynecomastia: A condition of over-developed or enlarged breasts affecting just one breast in men.
Venous system: Veins.